Core Approaches

A Scalable Proof-of-Stake Blockchain in the Open Setting.

iChing Consensus

iChing Consensus

iChing: Nakamoto-like Proof-of-stake Consensus Protocol

  • Low communication complexity
  • Local computing; non-interactive
  • Large-scale: millions of nodes
  • Next-block generator unpredictable via unique signature
  • Open; easy to join/leave
  • No mining
  • “Nothing at stake” to defend against “nothing at stake” attacks
  • Tree-based Parallel packing

    Tree-based Parallel packing

  • Greedy strategy: Multiple block producers packing transactions in parallel
  • Parallel blocks are ordered by layers, round, and tie-breaking via hash values
  • Use Bitcoin-NG technique (macro/micro blocks) to pack transactions “continuously”
  • Sharding & Fast Finality

    Sharding & Fast Finality

    Assign miners randomly into shards to maintain multiple disjoint chains

    Optimal placement of txs into shards to reduce 2-3x cross-shard txs (much slower to confirm, yet, 99% txs are cross-shard)

    Near-instant finality:

  • Fast confirmation in favorable condition
  • Layer-2 scaling (lightning network, plasma)
  • Inter-connectivity & Governance

    Inter-connectivity & Governance

    Light-weight communication protocol for internal chains

    Secure communication protocol for external chains

    Hybrid on-chain/off-chain governance

  • Novel voting for on-chain governance: software/policy update
  • Rule-based off-chain governance for emergency